AI researchers sometimes refer to machine learning technology as “brittle.” By this, they mean that artificial intelligence lacks a human’s understanding of real world complexities, with the end result being that AI systems sometimes break in quick and unexpected ways.

For a more practical illustration of what “brittleness” means, though, simply consider the case of the AI camera operator deployed by Scottish soccer team Inverness Caledonian Thistle FC. When the pandemic stopped fans attending matches, the club announced it would live stream its games, using an automatic camera system with “in-built, AI, ball-tracking technology” to make sure people always get the best view of the action.

But, during a recent live stream of matches, the…

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